1933

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The Nazis registered a large increase in votes in However, despite waging a campaign of terror against their opponents, the Nazis only tallied Two weeks after the election, Hitler was able to pass an Enabling Act on 23 March with the support of all non-socialist parties, which effectively gave Hitler dictatorial powers. Within months, the Nazis banned all other parties and turned the Reichstag into a rubberstamp legislature comprising only Nazis and pro-Nazi guests. The election took place after the Nazis came to power on 30 January, when President Paul von Hindenburg appointed Hitler as Chancellor.

The latter immediately urged the dissolution of the Reichstag and the calling of new elections.

In early February, the Nazis "unleashed a campaign of violence and terror that dwarfed anything seen so far. In the second half of February, the violence was extended to the Social Democrats , with gangs of brownshirts breaking up Social Democrat meetings and beating up their speakers and audiences. Issues of Social Democratic newspapers were banned.

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Government officials known to be Centre Party supporters were dismissed from their offices, and stormtroopers violently attacked party meetings in Westphalia. Six days before the scheduled election date, the German parliament building was set alight in the Reichstag fire , allegedly by the Dutch Communist Marinus van der Lubbe. Although Hitler could have banned the KPD outright, he opted not to do so. Not only did he fear a violent Communist uprising in the event of a ban, but he also believed the KPD's presence on the ballot could siphon off votes from the Social Democrats.


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Instead, he opted to simply have Communist functionaries jailed by the thousands. The courts and prosecutors, who had already been hostile to the KPD long before , obligingly took the line that since the Reichstag fire was a Communist plot, KPD membership was an act of treason. As a result, for all intents and purposes the KPD was "outlawed" on the day the Reichstag Fire Decree took effect, and "completely banned" as of the day of the election.

Literaturjahr 1933

Hence, the Reichstag fire is widely believed to have had a major effect on the outcome of the election. As a replacement parliament building, and for 10 years to come, the new parliament used the Kroll Opera House for its meetings. The resources of big business and the state were thrown behind the Nazis' campaign to achieve saturation coverage all over Germany. Brownshirts and SS patrolled and marched menacingly through the streets of cities and towns.

A "combination of terror, repression and propaganda was mobilized in every To further ensure a Nazi majority in the vote, Nazi organizations "monitored" the vote process. Social Democrat SPD vote share. Communist Party KPD vote share. In all 33 other districts, the Nazis were the largest party.

Timeline of Events - – — United States Holocaust Memorial Museum

Despite achieving a much better result than in the November election , the Nazis did not do as well as Hitler had hoped. In spite of massive violence and intimidation, [1] [2] the Nazis won only Although the KPD had not been formally banned, it was a foregone conclusion that the KPD deputies would never be allowed to take their seats. Within a few days, all of the KPD's representatives were either under arrest or were in hiding. Although the Nazi-DNVP coalition had enough seats to conduct the basic business of government, Hitler needed a two-thirds majority to pass the Enabling Act , a law which allowed the Cabinet—in effect, the Chancellor—to enact laws without the approval of the Reichstag for a four-year period.

Cost of Living 1933

Following the appointment of Adolf Hitler as German chancellor on January 30, , the Nazi state also referred to as the Third Reich quickly became a regime in which citizens had no guaranteed basic rights. Book Burning, May 10, Members of the Nazi Party and its affiliated organizations organize a nationwide boycott of Jewish-owned businesses in Germany. German law excludes Jews and other political opponents from civil service positions. The Law against Overcrowding in Schools and Universities limits the number of Jewish students in public schools.

New German law mandates the forced sterilization of certain individuals with physical and mental disabilities. German Jewish organizations join together to form the Reichsvertretung der deutschen Juden. Hitler orders the purge of the top leadership of the SA, the Nazi Party paramilitary formation.


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  6. The German government bans all organizations of the Jehovah's Witness Christian denomination. Revision of Paragraphs and a facilitates the systematic persecution of homosexual men in Nazi Germany. The Nuremberg Laws of herald a new wave of antisemitic legislation that brings immediate and concrete segregation. The Nazi dictatorship camouflages its racist, militaristic character while hosting the Summer Olympics.

    Owens' victory in the meter dash is the first of four gold medals he wins at the Olympic games. Buchenwald becomes one of the largest concentration camps established within the old German borders of